Monday, March 23, 2009



1) What are the structures that will be cut during episiotomy?
2) Name A and B.
3) What are the advantange and disadvantage for the above procedures?
4) What are the indications for episiotomy?


1) The structures to be cut are:
• skin and vaginal mucosa
• subcutaneous fat
• bulbospongiosus ms
• superficial and deep transverse perineal ms

2) Name:
A- Mediolateral episiotomy
B- Midline episiotomy

3) Advantage and disadvantage:

- Adv : avoid anal spincter trauma
- Disadv : high risk of bleeding

- Adv : easy repair n low risk bleeding
- Disadv : 3 degree tear of external anal spincther

4) The indications are:
•Fetal distress
•Short perineum
•Shoulder dystocia
•Fetal malposition e.g. occipito-posterior
•Instrumental or breech delivery
•Previous pelvic floor surgery

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prepared by: Nazuha Mukhtar
edited by:


`Aainaa Nur Raihana Abdullah on March 27, 2009 at 10:55 AM said...

lignocaine is a local and regional anesthetics which will reduce Na+ and K+ permeability and leads to blockage of nerve conduction.

it is used in episiotomy.

it is metabolized by plasma and liver cholinesterase.

therefore, side effects are:
1) complete heart block
2) myasthenia gravis



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