Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Tensilon Test



Definition

Tensilon is the trade name for edrophonium chloride. The Tensilon test is an injection of edrophonium chloride used to diagnosis myasthenia gravis (MG).

Purpose

Tensilon blocks the action of an enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, an important part of the system regulating neuromuscular transmission. To stimulate a muscle, a nerve cell (neuron) releases the chemical acetylcholine. To prevent prolonged muscle response to a single nerve signal, acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase after the muscle is stimulated.

In myasthenia gravis, there are too few receptors for acetylcholine on the muscle. The acetylcholine is broken down before it can fully stimulate this reduced number of receptors, and, as a result, the muscle is weak. By blocking the action of acetylcholinesterase, Tensilon prolongs the muscle stimulation, and temporarily improves strength. Increased strength following an injection of Tensilon strongly suggests a dignosis of MG. The Tensilon test is most effective when easily observed weakness is present, and is less useful for vague or fluctuating complaints.

Precautions

The Tensilon test may cause heart rhythm abnormalities, especially in those patients with preexisting conditions.

Description

The Tensilon test involves the intravenous injection of a small amount of Tensilon. The needle is left in place. If no adverse reaction is observed within 30 seconds, an additional volume is injected. Results are apparent within one minute.

Preparation

Before the test, the patient must stop taking all drugs that can inhibit acetylcholinesterase. The referring physician can advise on specific drugs the patient is taking.

Aftercare

The effects of Tensilon subside quickly, and are completely gone after 30-60 minutes. No aftercare is needed.

Risks

Atrial fibrillation and bradycardia are possible in sensitive individuals. The administering physician must have appropriate resuscitative equipment available.

Normal results

In a patient without MG, the Tensilon test will not produce an obvious increase in a previously weak muscle. Some subjective feelings of increased strength are possible but not significant.

Abnormal results

An obvious increase in strength in weakened muscles strongly suggests the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. The effect comes on very rapidly, and fades within minutes.

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